|Black Union soldiers refused their salaries for 18 months to protest being paid lower wages than white soldiers.
When black soldiers began signing up with the Union Army in early 1863, they were paid $10 a month. White soldiers were paid at least
$13, with officers earning more. Blacks were further insulted when only they were charged a $3 monthly fee for clothing, lowering their
pay to $7. As a result, the highest-paid black soldier earned about half the lowest-paid white soldier’s salary. To protest these conditions,
black regiments refused to accept their inferior wages. Finally, pressure from abolitionist congressmen coupled with the courage black
soldiers had shown in combat persuaded Congress to rectify the pay structure. In September 1864, black soldiers finally received equal
pay that was retroactive to their enlistment date. For many, this meant they finally had enough money to send some home to their
Artillery on Hancock
|All rights reserved.
|BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Having concentrated his army around the small town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Gen. Robert E. Lee awaited the approach of Union Gen.
George G. Meade’s forces. On July 1, early Union success faltered as Confederates pushed back against the Iron Brigade and exploited a weak
Federal line at Barlow’s Knoll. The following day saw Lee strike the Union flanks, leading to heavy battle at Devil's Den, Little Round Top, the
Wheatfield, Peach Orchard, Culp’s Hill and East Cemetery Hill. Southerners captured Devil’s Den and the Peach Orchard, but ultimately failed
to dislodge the Union defenders. On the final day, July 3rd, fighting raged at Culp’s Hill with the Union regaining its lost ground. After being
cut down by a massive artillery bombardment in the afternoon, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge and was repulsed in what is
now known as Pickett’s Charge. Lee's second invasion of the North had failed, and had resulted in heavy casualties; an estimated 51,000
soldiers were killed, wounded, captured, or listed as missing after Gettysburg.
High Water Mark Memorial
Dedicated in 1892
|New York State
New Jersey Light Artillery Position
Over 500 Confederates Were Buried
Around These Farm Buildings
This designation was invented by government historian John B. Bachelder after the war when the monuments of the Gettysburg Battlefield
were being erected. Some historians have argued that the battle was the turning point of the war and that this was the place that represented
the Confederacy's last major offensive operation in the Eastern Theater.
On the third day of the battle (July 3, 1863), Confederate General Robert E. Lee ordered an attack on the Union center, located on Cemetery
Ridge. This offensive maneuver called for almost 12,500 men to march over 1,000 yards of dangerously open terrain.
Preceded by a massive but mostly ineffective Confederate artillery barrage, the march across open fields toward the Union lines became known
as Pickett's Charge; Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett was one of three division commanders under the command of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, but
his name has been popularly associated with the assault. Union guns and infantry on Cemetery Ridge opened fire on the advancing men,
inflicting a 50% casualty rate on the Confederate ranks. One of Pickett's brigade commanders was General Lewis Addison Armistead. His men
were able to breach the Union lines in just one place, a bend in the wall that has become known as "the Angle." This gap in the Union line was
quickly closed with any Confederate soldiers who had breached it being quickly captured or killed.
Lee's Army of Northern Virginia retreated the next day, leaving Gettysburg for Virginia. Even though the war lasted almost another two years,
Lee launched few offensive operations during that time, none of them near the scale of the Gettysburg Campaign.
|1st Regiment Maryland Eastern Shore Monument
|ALL PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN BY DOUGLAS HANEY
ALL PHOTGRAPHS ARE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED - COPYRIGHT © 2015 - DOUGLAS HANEY PHOTOGRAPHY
|THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS
The Gettysburg Address is a
speech by U.S. President
Abraham Lincoln, one of the
best-known in American history.
It was delivered by Lincoln during
the American Civil War, on the
afternoon of Thursday, November
19, 1863, at the dedication of the
Soldiers' National Cemetery in
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four
and a half months after the Union
armies defeated those of the
Confederacy at the Battle of
Pickett's Assault Temporarily
Breached the Union Line Here
|THE HIGH WATER MARK OF THE CONFEDERACY
The high-water mark of the Confederacy refers to an area on Cemetery Ridge
near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, marking the farthest point reached by
Confederate forces during Pickett's Charge on July 3, 1863. Similar to a
high water mark of water, the term is a reference to arguably the
Confederate Army's best chance of achieving victory in the war. The line of
advance was east of "The Angle" stone wall at various distances, e.g., the
Virginians pushed the Union line back.
Union Artillery at the Outer Angle
|Culp's Hill - Confederates Attacked Entrenched Positions Up this Hill